In a period of 2-3 days, the caterpillar spins around 1 mile of strands and is effectively wrapped in a cocoon. The silk breeders heat the cocoons, leaving some cocoons to transmute into moths to foster the adjacent generation of caterpillars. Swarmed cocoons are then drenched in blistering water to melt the sericin, holding the silk fibres as one in the structure of cocoon. The fibres are then slackened to generate a prolonged thread. After all, a single thread is too fine and brittle for mercantile use: all over three to ten locks are interwoven together to create a single thread of silk.

As the reeling of strands from each cocoon nears completion, it is interchanged with new cocoon. The result of this reeling is known as raw silk, which abides 48 individual silk fibres. The sericin acts as a fastener in holding the filaments together while they connect to form a single thread. The silk filaments are reeled into rummages which are loaded in small bundles, of about 5-10 pounds.


Weaving is an execution of textile protraction in which two diverse sets of yarns are braided at right edge to form a fabric or cloth. The protensive threads are called the warp and the flanking threads are called the weft. The fabrication in which the threads are interwoven manipulates the personality of the cloth. Cloth is intrinsically woven in a loom, an apparatus that holds the wrapped threads in place, while filling threads are woven through them.

Weaving can be compiled as a chorus of these three actions –

  • - Shedding – where the ends are detached by raising or lowering head frames to create an unclogged space.
  • - Picking – where the weft is pushed across the loom by hand.
  • - Beating-up – where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by reed.


Woodblock printing on textiles is the mode of printing patterns on textiles, frequently on linen, cotton or silk by means of carved wooden blocks. It is the primitive, uncomplicated and sluggish of all methods of textile printing. Block printing by hand is a snail like process.

The blocks differ in size substantially, but must be always between 2-3 inches thick. Under other conditions, they are inclined to warping which is furthermore guarded against by backing the wood chosen with two or more pieces of cheapo wood, such as deal or pine. The wooden blocks are left to the visualization of the etcher who creates intricate patterns of the block. These could be lucid geometric formations or more detailed impressions. Depending on the pattern that the artiste wants to construct on the fabric, the block prints are used on the cloth like block printed sarees and several other clothes. Block printed designs are fascinating. The imprints when impressed on the cloth add a gratifying charisma to the cloth.


Embroidery is the art of ornamentation of fabrics or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery is applicable with wide variety of thread or coloured yarn. Some of the simple methods or stitches of the primitive embroidery are chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch and cross stitch. Those stitches remain the paramount techniques of hand embroidery till today.

In everyday language, a stitch in the framework of embroidery or hand sewing is defined as the action of the embroidery needle from the backside of the fabric to the front side and vice versa. Embroidery stitches are the nominal units in embroidery. These patterns are created by doing numerous embroidery stitches, either all are same or different ones, either ensuing a counting chart on paper, following a design painted on the fabric or even working free-hand.


Polishing is a finishing procedure that reinforces the quality of fabric by decreasing the pilling bias and dimness of knitted fabrics. This process eliminates protruding fibres and slubs from webbed fabrics. It substantially reduces pilling, mitigates fabric hand and provides a velvety appearance. It targets the removal of the small fibre ends protruding from the yarn surface and therefore curtails the frizz of the fabrics.

The objectives of polishing are –

  • - It prevents material sticking.
  • - The achievement of surface smoothness and a clean framework and improved lustre.
  • - To enhance sew-ability and fast to washing.
  • - To transform fabrics from poor quality, uneven to soft, exquisite with high quality surface appearance.


Silk is dyed applying discrete dyes such as acid dyes, metal-complex, reactive dyes etc. Acid dyes are more satisfactory for silk. Silk offers expanded colouration possibility covering practically the integral spectrum of colours and hues due to its ready stature for a huge range of dye stuffs. The dyeing of silk for superior dye uptakes on the material or feebleness of dye from the bath requires perfect dye accommodating less foreign matter, well maintained PH, quality of water and needs proper time of dyeing.